The Origin of Nomadism
One of the main questions raised about Nomads and nomadic lifestyle is about the origin of Nomadism. What were the leading causes of the creation of such a unique lifestyle? Before talking about the history and root causes of Nomadism, some points need to be taken into consideration. First, ‘Nomadism’ is an old way of life, but it is not too old, and it goes back to 7000 or 8000 years ago. Second, one of the requirements of such lifestyle was domestication of the wild animals of the area, and not all primitive people around the world tamed their animals. And, according to archaeologists, just a few groups have tried it. So, not all countries have Nomads & nomadic lifestyle. Third, there is a difference between the ancient nomadism and what we have today
The Early History
The first generation of primitive people did not make any city or house for a long time, and they made use of shades under trees or tents for living. Little by little, some made cottages and houses (primitive ones), but the rest chose to stay in nature. Till 12000 years ago, humans were living through hunting and gathering fruits and seeds. In this era, they used to live in small groups consisting of several families, and after they hunted in an area, they’d migrated to another area. In this era, it was not possible for primitive humans to live together in an area for a long time.
After about a hundred thousand years, around 12000 years ago, Neolithic Era began. The first development of farming and domestication of animals appeared in this era. These developments resulted in the establishment of nomadism, villages, and cities. Before this era, people had no active roles in their food production, and they used whatever they were provided by nature
The Start of Nomadism
Due to many reasons, such as population growth, climate changes, increase hunting, etc. some big changes happened in the ecological relations among humans, plants and animals. The number of animals, such as deer and mammoth decrease considerably, and then they became extinct. Before their extinction, hunters used to hunt them and by doing this, they had access to a large amount of meat. Moreover, these animals could be hunted easily due to their body size. But, when they became extinct, they had to hunt smaller animals such as ewes, rabbits, goats and foxes, which were difficult to be hunted. Therefore, the hunters made some big changes in their lifestyles. They settled down and embarked on planting wheat and barley, and domestication of goats and ewes. This is when people began to live in villages around 9000 years ago.
According to many scientists, Nomadism is an offshoot of this era, about 8000 years ago, but it does not mean that all nomads around the world have the same ancient history. Nomads of Saudi Arabia go back to 1200 years ago. So, the dates and causes of the rise of Nomadism vary country to country.
The Motives behind Nomadism
The motives are different among different groups. In some areas, it is the result of hunting. In Southwest of Asia, Middle East and north of Africa it is mostly affected by farming. Mostly in arid areas, when humans did not have easy access to cultivable lands, they embarked on animal husbandry, so they made use of the lands as pastures and grasslands. Little by little, the number of their flock increased, and they opted to be shepherds rather than farmers, nomadic rather than settled; and finally, they began Nomadism. But it does not mean that Nomads became self-sufficient, and they have always needed farming one way or another.
In case the number of their flock decreased or they lost the animals, they chose to settled down again to farm.
An Example of the Remnant of an Ancient Nomad in Iran
Based on the researches done in the southwest of Iran, it is estimated that most probably Nomadism began in Iran around 8000 years ago. In 1974, while a group of researchers was working on an ancient hill in Andimeshk, they came across an ancient camp used by the Nomads around 8000 years ago. The camp was located about 100 m away from the hill. Finding the camp proved the fact that 8000 years ago when humans were raising goats, they used to have a temporary stay in this area. So, it shows that the Nomads left the farming villages and start nomadism longer before what archeologist had estimated. Moreover, finding no farming tools such as sickle or grindstone confirms the theory more that the Nomads used to move in Zagros and used the oaks.