About a month ago, IRANomad Tours had the opportunity to host Emily Garthwaite, an award-winning photojournalist from the UK, on a trip to witness the Kooch of Bakhtiari Nomads.
Emily Garthwaite is interested in “slow travel”, a travelling philosophy which involves spending a long time in a place and truly immersing oneself in the culture, as opposed to quickly visiting touristic landmarks and not getting a sense of the people. Emily, Muhammad, and Sarah spent two weeks travelling with a few Bakhtiari families on their annual Kooch.
During this time Emily formed close bonds with the family members. Afterwards, she talked to us about her experience; Despite being a photojournalist by trade, Emily made sure to not pull out her camera during the first few days. She was very mindful of not disrupting their lifestyle.
This interview is transcribed from a webinar we hosted in September 2020.
IRANomad: What was your first impression of the Bakhtiaris; guardians of Zagros?
Emily Garthwaite: “During the first few days, I talked to the family and asked them about their lifestyle. I remember talking to the youngest child of the family, Kianoush, and asking him if he liked the Bakhtiari lifestyle or if he preferred to move to the city. Kianoush said; “I’ll always be a nomad”, I asked “why?”, he said, “I can’t get a job in the city, I’m just 10!”. Fair enough! As a child, his upbringing is wild and free. The parenting is very natural and ultimately the children’s personalities are very clear from an early age. As a Bakhtiari, your personality is shaped by nature, and that’s very remarkable. I have never met a child like Kianoush. He is so empathetic and so emotionally aware and very emotionally vulnerable too. It’s an emotional intelligence I’ve never ever seen in a child at his age. And, that’s not always because of hard life – I felt it’s because there’s a real accessibility within this community to the harder conversation and the reality of life. They’re very open about it, they deal with issues face on. Sometimes, a sheep dies, sometimes people move to the city, sometimes there are struggles, sometimes there is beauty…”
As a Bakhtiari, your personality is shaped by nature, and that’s very remarkable. I have never met a child, like Kianoush. He is wild and brilliant and so empathetic and so emotionally aware and very emotionally vulnerable. It’s an emotional intelligence I’ve never ever seen in a child at his age. And, that’s not always because of the hard life, no, just because there’s real accessibility within this community to the harder conversation, and the reality of life, they’re very open about it.
“They had disputes, the kids were sometimes nice, sometimes they were fighting, sometimes Hossein & Jahan were grumpy with each other, sometimes very close. Just like any normal family, and that’s what I really wanted to bring to this work: I didn’t want people to feel this is an isolated …and I use ‘tribe’ (because I feel like that word has been misused & misplaced for a very long time), and I didn’t want them to feel like this the other, they are not like us. The thing is they are exactly like any other community that I documented, just the backdrop is different. And a real priority in my work was to make sure this was intimate and close and relatable, and the dynamic between the children and the parents and the extended family, these are all relevant to our daily life. We can’t other these communities. We have to respect them, and value them and support them. And as I shared that I’ve done this kooch, an Iranian massaged me and said; “I’m so sad you’ve done this, everyone thinks Iran is just camels and sand, but it’s not true”, but it was interesting that she was quite ashamed that this could represent Iran. Iran is possibly the most multi-faceted country I’ve ever been to. It would be impossible to ever tell the story of Iran, but I was interested to see the reaction was a little hostile, like feeling these people are lesser, are less educated. Whatever people might think, it’s not true at all. The nomads are just phenomenal people and I guess so much of their life is intangible, they live by a sense of chance, of risks. everything has an intention. They never waste anything. They never waste their time. Everything is in synchronicity with nature. And, I think this is what needs to come true from the work more than this is a tribe who walks kooch. Look at the value that these people have; they have shaped the land and the land has shaped them and they are in synchronicity with Iran. What can be more Iranian than the people who have shaped that land. And I really hope they exalted in the society a bit more. And what I really love is they weren’t judgmental of my lifestyle, they just wanted to understand and they respected my choice, and they really did it.”
The nomads are just phenomenal people and I guess so much of their life is intangible, they live by a sense of chance, of risks. everything has an intention. They never waste anything. They never waste their time. Everything is in synchronicity with nature. And, I think this is what needs to come true from the work more than this is a tribe who walks kooch. Look at the value that these people have; they have shaped the land and the land has shaped them and they are in synchronicity with Iran. What can be more Iranian than the people who have shaped that land.
IRANomad: Considering that nomadic cultures are diminishing in Iran, do you think bringing tourists to experience Bakhtiaris’ Kooch will be empowering for them?
Emily Garthwaite: “I think the Bakhtiaries are incredibly unique, empowered and content people. They are making challenging choices that are reflective of the society, not so much of the downfalls of the community. They are open-minded, and they are willing to allow their children to go into the cities. It’s not like this ‘we don’t want to be Bakhtiaris’. They’re not narrow minded – they realise they must adapt. Between the age of 18 and kind of 30, they want to go to the city. They want to go and take this time out. Why shouldn’t they? And ultimately, what tends to happen, is they would come back to this community, once they got married or they have a degree or whatever they might want to do.. So, no, I don’t think they are fading away. Terms like ‘dying out’ or ‘fading away’ are rooted in colonialism. The language used to refer to indiginous groups is problematic, or overly romanticised. The history, and future, of the Bakhtiari are fluid. The Bakhtiari, be it nomads or those living in cities, will always be Bakhtiari.
Emily Garthwaite: “Their lifestyle demands a lot of land and a lot of freedom, and I understand that any government globally they always have issues with the nomad communities need for freedom. Bakhtairi believe in their lifestyle; they believe in their culture. They are just surprised someone has come all this way to see them, and I feel they love having visitors. So, the dynamic of bringing tourism is very comfortable, because it isn’t that the community is struggling and needs tourism to fund their lives, it’s more an exchange program and an opportunity for the nomads to share some of their knowledge, particularly indigenous knowledge.. So, it’s about sharing knowledge rather than solely supporting a community, although that plays a huge role. Supporting a community is listening, is sharing their knowledge, is respecting their culture.
From the lengthy interviews I did with Bakhtairi families, it was clear that nomads don’t idolise the west, or capitalism, or globalisation. They see the value in their community, their history, preservation of land, and synchronicity with the natural world. Too many communities have lost their cultural identity for this global vision of the West. The nomads retain their culture and their cultural identity even when they go into the cities. They never ever lose sight of that. There is no rejection of their culture, identity, and roots, even under immense pressure. They are hugely resilient. It is a privilege to be in that sacred space and I think it’s amazing that IRANomads have been able to work within community development & form these sensitive, respectful and collaborative relationships with these families. It’s a very delicate set up, because it’s just about having this exchange, and I feel like it’s less for the nomads and more for foreigners & Iranians. Bakhtiaris know they are bringing other people into the space to learn from them. So, it’s not community development in the most typical of ways. But my hope is that if the tourism is managed, very gradually, comfortably, and with the right financial backing, because we don’t want to pay the nomads more than they would have in their normal lifestyle, so they can continue doing the work, because it’s much risky to shift to tourism, it has to be done very delicately.
IRANomad: What do you find appealing about Slow Travelling?
Emily Garthwaite: I remember I spent 8 months in India and I never saw Taj Mahal, and then someone told me “oh my God, you haven’t seen India if you haven’t seen Taj Mahal”. And I never understood that. When I came to Iran for example, they said you need to go to every single city, but I always want to focus on one story, one community. I don’t feel like travel should be defined country by country but story & community. I’m not really interested in ticking countries off. I certainly don’t think you can understand a country in two weeks, you have to keep returning. I feel a sort of commitment to countries, so I’m not actually ‘well-travelled’, I’ve just been to very specific places for a long time.I like to spend my time. I am, day by day, decolonizing my mind. And I really enjoy challenging stories, stories that shape my life, that help me unlearn, and stories that celebrate under-represented communities. The Bakhtiari story is challenging as a white foreigner, to come to Iran and tell stories of an incredibly complex and rich community.
IRANomad: What do you find challenging in telling these stories?
Emily Garthwaite: I am mindful of my whiteness, of being British, of being a foreigner, the history of colonialism. What is my responsibility, how am I viewing a country and how am I telling a story. I want to make sure to tell stories appropriately, respectfully, and to help the community. I want to make sure that I support Iranians and I listen to their stories and voices and appropriately share those stories within the cultural context and don’t place my values on them.
IRANomad: Did you find the journey tiring at any point?
Emily Garthwaite: Actually, I loved it. We did celebrate the days we were on the horse! We’d say “ah, today is a very good day” – a break from a lot of walking. Once you’re walking and walking with family as a photographer, as a tourist probably it’s different because you don’t have to keep up, but I have to keep up with them, because I had to photograph them. So, the physicality, … Muhammad is like a natural … and he’s so fast, but for me, I’m not used to be in that landscape. It’s so difficult to navigate those mountainsides. I don’t know what was harder – going up, or coming down! I loved the challenge, and felt so proud to be able to keep up, to work hard to be with the family and push my body. So for a few days I walked like crazy because I really wanted them to respect me so I tried really really hard for the first few days. I felt so proud to be involved in that dynamic. That was really interesting that I kept up with the family, I’m involved in the family, I’m helping the family with the donkeys, we are working as a team. I think it’s important for the people to know that the Bakhtiari people find kooch hard too. It’s not like this is a natural thing. They find things a lot easier than us, but they still find it challenging. It’s not an easy thing for anyone to do. If someone says to me “you left a sheep on top the hill and you have to go and get it”, I’d say “I need a cup of tea, and I’m going to have a little breather!”, and for the Baktiari, it’s simple, “ok, right, we’ll go up”.
You might think they have such a challenging life but in reality, this community find the stuff we find challenging really easy. They are able to go off tens of kilometres with sheep, and they do it with a lot of ease. They come back tired, but it comes naturally to them.
IRANomad: What do you think are the potential challenges of running these tours?
Emily Garthwaite: I think you’re just going to maintain a really really gentle balance. I think the concerns would be … we’ve done a press piece for this and a long form article of the time we stayed with the community. My worry would be that you will start to have a stream of people coming with cameras & phones and filming, and the consent in the relationships obviously after three days is only the very beginning. You need a lot of time with this community, how you can manage the concerns and respect for that community and sharing the stories without posting videos of the daughters online on social media. I won’t be sharing any photograph of Afsaneh, the daughter of the family on Instagram. It will only be published when the story is published and it would be in that piece. And, your tourism company need to manage these dynamics, because you need people to know that they pay for the tour to walk with the nomads not to photograph nomads like a Safari, because it can very easily become that and we’ve seen that with many communities. I think you’ve got that balance so right. It’s very clear that you are coming to move with the community, you’re living with this community, you respect this community, and I didn’t take any pictures of them for a quite a while and I was very reserved about it. And I hope that … and I know that you have travellers who are very conscious and won’t go there just to take pictures and they understand the community.
You need people to know that they pay for the tour to walk with the nomads not to photograph nomads like a Safari, because it can very easily become that and we’ve seen that with many communities just ending up being photographed as a part of a personal project. I think you’ve got that balance so right. It’s very clear that you are coming to move with the community, you’re living with this community, you respect this community, and I didn’t take any pictures of them for quite a while and I was very reserved about it. And I hope that … and I know that you have travellers who are very conscious and won’t go there just to take pictures and they understand the community.
Emily Garthwaite: We had our first bonding moment after a week. There was no point that I ever felt like I’m a foreigner. I was a part of the family. They treated me like a family. There is no room for fluff, there’s no time. We’re living together, and you contribute positively and you share the courage. Don’t complain, never complain, just do it, do the time, respect them, and I think the worst thing a foreigner could ever do is to complain, because if you complain you are saying your lifestyle is not suitable for me. So, even if it’s really challenging, you just do it, because it brings you a lot of joy. It might be difficult, but it brings joy to me that I’m supporting you, and your way of life … I can do this. It’s only 2 weeks. I find this hard if it was a year, but that’s the role of a tourist: respect, respect, step up, arrive with good fitness. You need to be perfectly fit, and you need to bring good shoes, and just focus because you have to really step up for it, it’s not just climbing a mountain. pace at the pace and if you don’t keep up, you wouldn’t see them until the end of the day. I think it’s one of the best experiences I’ve ever had. I love people. I absolutely love people. I have always been fascinated by these extraordinary qualities that everyone has in them. I’m a detailed-oriented person, and that’s why people are of interest to me. I don’t study people, but I notice everything. I always notice the dynamics, and this is something I’ve always had. I love to ask questions. And I really believe that by spending time with communities around the world, I can grow as a person. These are qualities I want to learn about and develop in myself. And the more experiences we have, and greater understanding we have of how other people live, the more accepting we are as societies. I can just bring home these stories to friends and family. Within my family & friends these stories and my experiences shape a lot of the conversation we have. It’s an educational thing to share with people, and it’s a real gift the job I have. I really don’t take it for granted, my friends want to get involved, and my family wants to visit Iran, I think I’ve made these places warm for them and accessible, rather than exoticize and demonize, not just reduce to a post-conflict zone, or conflict zone. I just hope to reflect another beautiful reality – someone else’s home.
IRANomad would like to thank the following. We are so grateful for their support. Without their help, it would have been impossible to plan the trip with Emily Garthwaite. special thanks to Fotros who helped with the visa procedure.